Caudill, J. W., B. Diamond, S. Karas, and M. DeLisi. 2017. "Decoupling the Labeling Tradition: Exploring Gang Affiliation and the Application of Law." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 15 (4): 343-358. doi:10.1177/1541204016689492.
"Scholars have tested Becker’s master status thesis on criminal justice system outcomes, yet have been unable to disentangle the label from behavioral characteristics. To clarify the effects of labels, we used archival juvenile court data to test Becker’s master status through the effects of gang affiliation on case disposition. Stratified multivariate regression models revealed consistent effects of predictors—mental health needs, offenses per case, felony offense, and pretrial detention—on case referral to juvenile court across the gang-affiliated demarcation. The static effects of legal predictors across the gang demarcation levy questions about the legal consequences of labels." -- from the journal