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Plagiarism is the use of distinctive ideas or words belonging to another person, without adequately acknowledging that person’s contribution. Regardless of the means of appropriation, incorporating another’s work into one’s own requires adequate identification and acknowledgement, unless the material used is considered common knowledge. Plagiarism is doubly unethical because it deprives the true author of the rightful credit and gives that credit to someone who has not earned it. When the source is not noted, the following would constitute plagiarism:

1. Word-for-word copying;

2. The mosaic (to intersperse a few words of one’s own here and there while, in essence, copying another’s work);

3. The paraphrase (the rewriting of another’s work, but still using the same fundamental idea or theory);

4. Fabrication (inventing or counterfeiting sources);

5. Ghost-written material (submitting another’s effort as one’s own)

          It is also plagiarism to neglect quotation marks on material that is otherwise acknowledged.


Cheating involves intentionally possessing, communicating, using (or attempting to use) unauthorized (by the instructor) materials, information, notes, study aids, or other devices, in any academic exercise, or the communication with any other person during such an exercise.


1. Copying from another’s paper or receiving unauthorized assistance from another during an academic exercise or in the submission of academic material.

2. Using a calculator when the use has been specifically disallowed.

3. Collaborating with another student or students during an academic exercise without the consent of the instructor.


This is the intentional and unauthorized alteration or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise.


1. Fabrication involves inventing or counterfeiting information; i.e., creating results not obtained, as in a laboratory experiment.

2. Falsification involves altering results, deliberately changing information to suit one’s needs.


This is the submission of substantial portions of either written or oral academic work, which has previously earned credit, when such submission is made without instructor authorization.


This is intentionally or knowingly destroying, stealing, or making inaccessible, library or other academic resource material.


1. Stealing, destroying, or tampering with library or reference materials, or computer programs or files.

2. Stealing or destroying another student’s notes or materials, or having in possession such materials without the owner’s permission.

3. Receiving assistance in locating or using sources of information in an assignment where such assistance has been forbidden by the instructor.

4. Illegitimate possession and disposition of examinations or answer keys to tests and examinations.

5. Unauthorized alteration, forgery, or falsification of official academic records.

6. Unauthorized selling or purchasing of examinations, papers, or assignments.


This is intentionally or knowingly contributing to the academic dishonesty of another.

These examples of academic dishonesty shall not be construed to be comprehensive, and infractions will be dealt with on an individual basis. It is the obligation of each student to assist in the enforcement of academic standards; infractions, whether by students or faculty, should be first brought to the attention of the instructor.