Thomas, Morgen L."Sick/Beautiful/Freak: Nonmainstream Body Modification and the Social Construction of Deviance." SAGE Open 2, no. 4 (2012). doi: 10.1177/2158244012467787
Morgen Thomas, Department of Sociology
"Nonmainstream body modification practitioners actively demonstrate a confounding agency that often results in the stigmatization of their physical characteristics, their moral constitution, and their behavior. By inscribing meaning and identity in visible ways rather than allowing society to project expectations onto them based on their gender, age, race, sexual orientation, and so on, nonmainstream body modifiers present a unique challenge to American conceptions of what is healthy, what is beautiful, and what is human. Using Patricia Hill Collins' idea of controlling images, Erving Goffman's conceptions of stigma, and Arthur W. Frank's styles of body usage typology, this article examines constructions of deviance within the embodied framework of unconventional body modification practices." -- from the journal.