Food Borne Illnesses

Understanding and Preventing Food Borne Illness


How Prevalent is “Food Poisoning”?

The CDC estimates that each year:

  • Roughly 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) get sick
  • 128,000 are hospitalized
  • 3,000 die of foodborne diseases

 

 

Learning About Food Borne Illness

  • Causes
  • Pathogenesis
  • Symptoms
  • Treatment
  • Common Pathogens
    • Listeria
    • Norovirus
    • Campylobacter
    • E. Coli
    • Salmonella
  • Prevention
  • Overview

 

 



 

 

Causes

causes

 

Top 10 Riskiest Foods

riskiest foods

 

Means of Transmission

Why is Food Borne Illness so Common?

trasmission

 

 



 

 

Generalized Pathogenesis

pathogenesis

 



 


Symptoms

symptoms

 

 



 

 

Treatment

treatment

When Should you See a Doctor?

Symptoms that point to serious infection are:
  • Headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Confusion or changes in alertness
  • Loss of balance
  • Convulsions

 

 



 

 

Common and Deadly Foodborne Pathogens:
U.S. Estimates for Known Pathogens in 2011
(38.4 Million Other Cases of Illness are due to Unidentified Agents)

stats

 

 



 


Listeria

listeria

  • Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, catalase-positive rod bacteria.
  • Hardy and Capable of growth at a wide range of temperatures, from 33.8-113°F.
  • Opportunistic pathogen: Most prevalent in the elderly, pregnant mothers, and AIDS patients.
  • Low infectivity, 9.7 cases per million population
  • Mortality rate of about 20-30%. (Salmonella has a mortality rate estimated at less than 1%).
  • Does NOT pass person-to-person

 

Top Causes

top causes

2011 Colorado Listeria Outbreak

  • 146 Infected
  • 30 Deaths
  • 1 Miscarriage

From the CDC's October 25, 2011, UPDATE on the Jensen Farms Cantaloupe Listeria Outbreak, here is a national picture of where the outbreak has spread (28 states).

outbreak

 

 

 



 

 

Norovirus

norovirus

  • Also know as human calicivirus
  • Single-stranded RNA viruses
  • Highly contagious; outbreaks are common due to the ease of transmission.
  • CDC estimates that >21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis each year.
  • >50% of all foodborne outbreaks can be attributed to noroviruses.

Outbreaks laboratory-confirmed by CDC, by setting and genotype

United States, 1994--2006

norovirus causes

 

Top Causes of Norovirus

causes

 

Norovirus is Highly Contagious

Following the timeline of this virus is helpful in preventing outbreaks:

timeline

 

 



 

 

Campylobacter

campylobacter

  • "Twisted Bacteria"
  • Most commonly found in birds
  • Infections are isolated and sporadic, and don't spread easily.
  • About 13 of 100,000 people each year are diagnosed
  • In 2005, Campylobacter was present on 47% of raw chicken breasts tested through the FDA-NARMS Retail Food program
  • Bloody diarrhea is characteristic of Campylobacter

 

Top Causes

causes

 

 



 

 

E. coli O157:H7

e. coli

  • Inhabitant of the large intestine, producing vitamin K and preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine
  • Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in humans
  • E coli is the leading cause UTI
  • When traveling to 3rd world countries:
    • Don't use ice or drink tap water.
    • Avoid raw fruits and vegetables, except those with skin that you peel yourself.
  • Don't take diarrhea medicine or antibiotics if diarrhea is bloody.
    • It can slow the digestion process, allowing more time for your body to absorb the poisons made by the E. coli.

 

 



 

 

Salmonella

salmonella

  • Rod-shaped bacteria
  • Does not usually affect the taste, smell, or appearance of the food.
  • Reptiles and birds are more likely to harbor Salmonella, even if they're healthy.

 

The CDC estimated 1.4 million cases and more than 400 deaths annually in the US.

These contaminated ingredients caused 1/3 of the Salmonella outbreaks.

†Other includes: Sprouts, leafy greens, roots, fish, grains-beans, shellfish, oil-sugar, and dairy.

salmonella causes

 

 



 

 

Preventing Food Borne Illness

  • Reducing foodborne illness by just 10% would keep 5 million Americans from getting sick each year

prevention

 

 



 

 

Overview

  • Print out this overview of some of the most common food borne illness, and keep it handy in case you think you may be infected in the future.

overview